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11 juin 2011 6 11 /06 /juin /2011 19:20

source : AFP

 

AFP) – 09/01/2009

 

El célebre chef repostero Gaston Lenôtre

 

PARIS (AFP) — El célebre chef repostero Gaston , fallecido el jueves a los 88 años de edad, renovó el arte de la repostería y construyó un verdadero imperio de la gastronomía en el mundo entero.

"Mis colegas se estancaban en el conformismo", decía Lenôtre, hombre enérgico, considerado como un pionero de la repostería moderna por haberse saltado las convenciones, creando dulces más livianos y sabores inéditos.

Gaston Lenôtre "sacó la repostería de sus arcaísmos", afirmó el repostero Pierre Hermé, que aprendió el oficio con él. "Allí aprendí las bases de la profesión, el rigor del trabajo, la preocupación por el detalle, el sentido de la calidad", declaró a la AFP Hermé.

Gaston Lenôtre "transformó la repostería con su creatividad", estima asimismo Alain Passard, chef tres estrellas del restaurante l'Arpège de París. Otro gran chef francés, Paul Bocuse, estimó que, en matería de repostería, hay que hablar simplemente de "Carême (1784-1833) y Lenôtre".

Gaston Lenôtre nació el 28 de mayo de 1920 en Saint-Nicolas-du-Bosc (Normandía), de padre y madre cocineros. Tras terminar su formación, se instaló en 1945 en Pont-Audemer (Normandía) antes de trasladarse a París, donde abrió su primera pastelería en 1957 y conquistó una clientela creciente con sus pasteles, tartas, espumas y pastas dulces.

Trastocando los códigos tradicionales, combinó sabores nuevos para inventar dulces más livianos, a los que denominó "Opera" (combinación de chocolate y café) o "Succès", de nombre predestinado, a base de pasta dulce y de crema de nougat.

Se lanzó después a la elaboración de manjares salados, creando un servicio de comida de encargo, que se fue ampliando hasta convertirse en un imperio, construido metódicamente y dirigido con mano de hierro.

"La repostería me enseñó el gusto por la precisión, la medida, la disciplina. No soporto las cosas hechas a medias", solía decir Lenôtre, que se calificaba a sí mismo de "maniaco de la limpieza".

"Soy un hombre de investigación y de laboratorio", pero todo debe hacerse con métodos artesanales, incluso si hay que servir a 5.000 comensales", afirmaba.

El pastelero convertido en empresario no se contentaba con vender, y quiso también transmitir su saber fundando en 1971 una escuela Lenôtre, destinada a formar profesionales procedentes del mundo entero.

A partir de 1975, el imperio Lenôtre atravesó las fronteras de Francia para llegar a Alemania, Japón, Estados Unidos, China u Oriente Medio.

Además de las tiendas, la empresa, adquirida en 1985 por el grupo hotelero Accor, posee varios restaurantes.

Casado y padre de tres hijos, aficionado a la caza y al golf, Gaston Lenôtre es asimismo autor de varios libros de cocina.

¿La receta del éxito? "Siempre hago las cosas con pasión, con el corazón, jamán pensé en ganar dinero", decía.

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1 juin 2011 3 01 /06 /juin /2011 22:07

source : http://www.lemangeur-ocha.com

 

C’est à l’occasion du 250è anniversaire de la naissance de Brillat-Savarin que ce Colloque international a été organisé en mars 2005 à Paris par le Centre d’histoire culturelle des sociétés contemporaines (CHCSC) de l’Université de Versailles-St Quentin en Yvelines et par la Société d’Ethnologie Française (SEF), avec le concours de l’Ocha.


 

GASTRONOMIE ET IDENTITE CULTURELLE FRANCAISE

DISCOURS ET REPRESENTATIONS (XIXe-XXIe siècles)

17, 18 et 19 mars 2005, Paris


 

gastronomie et identité culturelle française - colloque i

Marchetti, "A la cuisine", L'Illustration, 2 décembre 1893 (Cliché Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris)

Sous la direction de Françoise HACHE-BISSETTE (dpt IC) et Denis SAILLARD

Nouveau monde éditions, ISBN : 2-84736-188-X


 

     

Présentation par Denis Saillard et Françoise Hache-Bissette. 


 

(documents PDF )


I - Discours fondateurs


 

  

II- Vecteurs du discours gastronomique français au XIXe siècle

 

   

III- Réception et appropriation de la gastronomie française à l’étranger au XIXe siècle

 

   

IV - Discours gastronomique et constructions de la nation (1850-1945)


 Karin Becker, Université de Stuttgart.
"On ne dîne pas aussi luxueusement en province qu'à Paris, mais on y dîne mieux". L'éloge ambivalent des cuisines régionales dans le roman français du XIXe siècle.

   

V - Représentations et "Pédagogies"


Olivier Assouly, Institut français de la mode.
Le motif de la simplicité comme enjeu de la gastronomie.

 

VI - Le discours gastronomique à l’écran dans la seconde moitié du XXe siècle

 

 

VII - A l’heure de la "mondialisation"


 Bertram M. Gordon, Mills University, California.
"Pommes frites" ou "freedom fries", des perspectives américaines sur la revue américaine Gourmet (1941-2005).

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1 juin 2011 3 01 /06 /juin /2011 17:48

source : http://www.ehow.com/

 

France, long thought to be the culinary center of the world, has had a considerable impact on American tastes. Whether it's a wine and cheese party, a quick stop at the bakery or a night sampling haute cuisine out on the town, French influence can be seen throughout cooking in America.

 

Pastry and Baked Goods

One of the best places to find French culinary influence in America is the bakery. Popular French offerings in a typical American bakery include crusty baguettes, which can be eaten alone or used for small sandwiches, and flaky butter croissants, which can be dressed up with chocolate or almonds. Petits fours, or tiny cakes covered with fondant, are another French treat popular in America. The name is a joke meaning "small oven."

 

Wine

Despite the growing popularity of wines from countries like Chile, Australia and South Africa, it seems that American wine enthusiasts will always return to beloved French wines. It's almost impossible to get by in the wine market without a little French, because French offerings are so popular in America--Bordeaux, cabernet sauvignon, Chablis, merlot, pinots (blanc, gris and noir), sauvignon blanc, and everyone's favorite party wine, Champagne.

 

Cheese

France produces a number of hard and soft (triple-creme) cheeses that Americans can't seem to get enough of. These include Roquefort, a blue cheese made from sheep's milk; Neufchâtel, which is offered in a creamier version in the States than in France; Muenster, a strong, soft cheese; and Camembert and Brie, the most beloved of France's triple-creme cheeses, eaten at room temperature to enjoy the somewhat runny textures and buttery flavors.

 

Brunch

It would seem that brunch in America would be nothing without French foods. Take crêpes, with their almost limitless assortment of topping options--from sweet, like fruit and chocolate, to savory ones filled with tomato and cheese. There is also quiche, an egg-based open pie that can be vegetarian or baked with smoky meats like ham and bacon.

 

Gourmet Foods

The popularity of haute cuisine ("high cooking") has contributed greatly to American restaurant culture. Popular French gourmet offerings include escargots (snails), foie gras and pâté de foie gras (fattened goose and other bird livers) and black truffles.

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1 juin 2011 3 01 /06 /juin /2011 17:41

source : http://www.louisianatravel.com/

 

Louisiana’s celebrated food is the product of diverse influences, not the least of which was the haute cuisine of France.

By Ian McNulty

 

If you know anything about Louisiana, you probably know that it’s delicious. The state is practically synonymous with great eating, and lusty cooking is a cornerstone of the local culture. But what makes Louisiana cuisine so special? At its most basic, Louisiana cuisine is Old World cooking, modified to use ingredients from the lushly productive local waters and fields, and diversified along the way by the many ethnic groups that call Louisiana home. But there was something else at play in Louisiana’s earliest days that produced a crucial distinction in our cuisine. Louisiana maintained a strong affinity with France during the same period when the French were developing haute cuisine and the idea of the modern restaurant. Though far away and in a much different environment, Louisiana’s early European settlers paid close attention to these cultural signals from overseas. “I believe they were mirroring a French approach emerging at that time,” says Liz Williams, executive director of the Southern Food & Beverage Museum in New Orleans. “They had the mindset that food was an art and a philosophy, and that it should be prepared a certain way.” The attitude gave rise to Louisiana’s Creole cuisine, a style that shares DNA with many French classics, from the lavish use of buttery sauces to an inherent compatibility with wine. That same cultural approach would influence the way cooking from different ethnic groups was interpreted in Louisiana. The state’s French founders also brought slaves, who, even as they endured terrible injustices, made an indelible African contribution to local cooking. The name “gumbo” comes from a Bantu word for okra, a key ingredient in many gumbo recipes. A fresh round of émigrés poured into south Louisiana after the 1804 slave revolt in Saint-Domingue (modern-day Haiti), adding a Caribbean influence to the plate. Native peoples also nurtured the cuisine, especially in the use of local seasonings. Most famously, Indians introduced filé, or ground sassafras, which is used to thicken and flavor stews. The Acadians, or Cajuns, who traveled from Canada to the Louisiana swamps after a long, difficult exile, developed their own sturdy, more rural style of French cuisine, distinct from the refined, urban Creole style of New Orleans. The Spanish generally get credit for spicing up Louisiana cooking with red pepper. Germans led a wave of 19th-century European immigration through the port of New Orleans, and the sausage-making traditions they brought remain essential to any Louisiana menu. Italians also arrived in great numbers, and they made such an impact on local tastes that a subset of Louisiana cuisine is known as Creole-Italian. The pattern of ethnic contributions and free interpretation continues in the modern Louisiana kitchen, with people from Southeast Asia and Latin America increasingly influencing the local palate. It all shows that Louisiana’s culinary glory belongs to the whole state and its arch of history. The reward for visitors is that sampling this rich heritage is as easy as pulling up a seat and digging in.

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1 juin 2011 3 01 /06 /juin /2011 17:24

source : http://www.ehow.com/

 

French Cooking WordsthumbnailEnglish is suffused with French vocabulary (for example, even the words "suffuse" and "vocabulary" are French in origin). Ordinary English cooking terms, such as "restaurant," "cuisine," "entrée," "saute" and "dessert" are derived from the French. There is also a more specialized set of cooking terms that originated in the French culinary vocabulary. This is thanks to the dominant role France has played in developing fine cuisine in the western world.

 

Features

"Saute," "blanch," "a la carte," "bouillon," "hors d'oeuvres," "crepe," "crouton," "au gratin," "puree," "souffle" "braise," "cafe," "infuse," "zest" and "cream" are just a few examples of Americanized French culinary words. French cuisine has had such an impact on western cooking that its vocabulary has penetrated every level of society. While some French cooking terms are known only to gourmands, there are many French cooking words that are a natural part of any English speaker's arsenal.

 

Technical Influence

Certain French culinary terms, while well known by gourmets and culinary professionals, may not be known to all English speakers. These include "bain-marie," "bouquet garni," "deglacer," "flambe," "quenelle," "frappe," "fricasse," "mirepoix," "chiffonade," "ragout" and "julienne." Many of these terms refer to specific culinary techniques.

The prevalence of these terms in American kitchens is probably due to the traditional French dominance of professional food preparation. For centuries, French food has symbolized high-quality cuisine in American culture. Therefore high-end restaurants, whether they serve French food or not, often prefer to hire "classically trained" chefs, and classically trained means French-trained in this instance. This is because French culinary techniques are believed to be the most refined in the world, elevating cooking from necessity to art.

 

Culinary Influence

American cuisine also borrows a number of dishes from French cuisine, and their names have become part of the American lexicon. Bisques, beignets, bechamel sauce, canapes, compotes, pate, consomme, terrine and tarts can be found in any American city's restaurants. In Louisiana, French cooking has an enormous influence on Cajun and Creole cuisine. This is reflected by the regional vocabulary, where French terms like "au lait," "etouffee" and "en papillote" are common.

 

Significance

French cuisine has significantly shaped how we think of and talk about food. The French were arguably the first people in the western world to conceptualize food as more than simply sustenance. They systematized cooking and eating, inventing methods and traditions that are still in wide practice today. In the process, they permanently impacted the American vocabulary.

 

History

At the end of the Middle Ages, French cooks began replacing the strongly flavored medieval sauces common to the era with milder, more complex sauces based on fat and starch. They also ceased the medieval practice of adding sweet flavors to savory dishes, such as meat. French chefs emphasized the taste of food over its healthful properties. This was known as nouvelle cuisine. Vegetable dishes became increasingly popular, losing their "peasant" connotations, and the upper classes began to designate special rooms in their residences simply for the purpose of dining. (These rooms, called "dining rooms," are now a ubiquitous feature in most homes.) The French also pioneered the use of forks and plates---technologies that were not common in most European countries in the 1700s---and started the first restaurants. French cuisine continues to be incredibly influential today.

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1 juin 2011 3 01 /06 /juin /2011 17:10

source : http://www.mexconnect.com

 

Karen Hursh Graber

Mexican Kitchen

 

Modern Mexican cooking is considered by culinary historians to be a fusion of three cuisines - indigenous, Spanish and French. This column has covered pre-Hispanic ingredients and techniques in the past, and last month focused on Mexican colonial-period cooking, characterized by the introduction of Spanish ingredients, notably animal products, citrus and other fruit, olives and olive oil, and Far Eastern spices, Spain's culinary legacy from the Arab world. The next important element in the evolution of modern Mexican gastronomy is the influence of French cooking, one that began surprisingly earlier than is generally believed

Although culinary changes reached the New World slowly, continental cuisine was transformed from medieval - characterized by the heavy use of sugar and spices - to modern cuisine, in which the flavors are enhanced with salt and herbs, at about the turn of the seventeenth century. This style of cooking was dubbed nouvelle cuisine, a term which is actually over three hundred years old. However, it is evident from colonial Mexican kitchen manuals that, although many dishes were called a la francesca, they were still basically medieval.

It was in the early-to-mid 1800's, several decades before Maximilian and Carlotta arrived to establish their ill-conceived empire, that Mexican cuisine began to be influenced by French recipes and techniques. In 1831, El Cocinero Mexicano (The Mexican Cook), the country's first printed cookbook, was published by Mariano Galván Rivera.

The anonymous author of the book, which was to be the most influential Mexican cookbook of the 19th century, may very well have been more anti-Spanish than pro-French in his nationalistic approach to food (considering that this was written only a decade after independence from Spain) but nevertheless his treatment of recipes was in the tradition of classic French chefs. The importance of stocks, emphasized in El Cocinero Mexicano, is one of the foundations of French cuisine, as is the attention to digestion. (The author quotes Alexandre Dumas' Dictionary of Cuisine on this topic.)

Although El Cocinero Mexicano and other cookbooks claimed to be nationalistic in their approaches to recipe collection, very few of them actually contained recipes for enchiladas, tamales and other corn-based dishes now considered to be quintessentially Mexican. Diccionario de Cocina, published in México City in 1845, calls tamales the food of the lower orders.

The formation of Mexican culture was still being seen in European terms, something that was to reverse itself a century later, but not before a period of intense effort on the part of the elite to emulate the architecture, fashion and cuisine of the French. The empire of Maximilian and the presidency of Porfirio Díaz were both influential in promoting la comida afrancescada ("Frenchified" cooking.)

When Maximilian and Carlotta began their doomed Mexican adventure, one of the first projects of the royal couple was the rebuilding of Chapultepec Castle, once the summer palace of the Spanish viceroys. Renovated in the Tuscan style, and decorated with furnishings from Queen Victoria and Czar Alexander II, the castle was the scene of one state dinner after another, where French cuisine was served. These meals began at 3:30 in the afternoon and lasted for five or six hours.

A menu dated March 29, 1865 is written in French, and one look at it explains why it took several hours to eat. Among the five courses are two soups, five fish and shellfish dishes, five meat dishes and assorted side dishes, desserts, champagne and French, Rhenish and Hungarian wines. Even at breakfast, sherry, bordeaux, burgundy and Hungarian wines were served. Historian Richard O'Connor, in writing of those days at the castle, tells us that "Creole society never gorged itself so completely and repeatedly as…when night after night the state dining room at Chapultepec was thrown open to feasting." Among the dishes served at that March 29 meal was potage brunoise, the recipe for which calls for a bain marie, a cooking technique adopted by Mexican chefs and called a baño maria, used to make a jugo de carne very similar to the meat broth used in making potage brunoise. Another dish listed on the menu is vol-au-vent, the filled puff pastry shells that became the Mexican bolovanes. (The French influence on cakes and pastries alone could fill a book, and for an historical perspective on this, see The Pastry Wars, in the November 2003 issue of Mexico Connect.)

Despite the fine dining and drinking that went on at Chapultepec, Maximilian's empire came to a tragic end, which possibly could have been predicted when, in a misguided attempt at gastronomic fusion, one of his Mexican guests on a canoe trip mixed pulque with French champagne, producing highly unpleasant effects on several of the drinkers on board. Two years later, Maximilian was accompanied on his last carriage ride toward the site of his execution by his faithful chef, Tudos.

During the thirty-five years that followed, under President Porfirio Díaz, a Francophile infatuated by European culture, French influences permeated Mexican cuisine. The terms and sauces used in French cooking, such as béchamel and velouté, became part of the Mexican culinary repertoire. Brillat-Savarin's Psychology of Taste had been published in a Mexican edition in 1852, and in 1893 a cookbook by the chef of the Paris Jockey Club was published in Mexico. Housewives eagerly read the newspaper recipe pages in order to duplicate the characteristic dishes of fine French cuisine.

In Una Mirada Historica a través de la Comida - A Look at History through Food - Tonantzín Ortíz Rodríguez points out that while eating is a biological act, cooking is a cultural, social and economic act. Cuisine permits us to identify the group from which an individual comes. The culinary styles of the Porfiriato, divided so markedly between those of the elite and those of the poor, seem like a clear indication of the revolution to come.

Homemakers such as Lucía Cabrera de Azcárate, whose manuscript cookbook of 1901, Recetario de Tepetitlán, Puebla , has recently been published by CONACULTA, the National Council for Arts and Culture, were clearly from a social class that could adopt the French recipes and techniques. The book contains several French reduced sauces that the señora prepared at home, as well as complicated sweets and desserts and an array of nearly every type of meat, fish and game imaginable.

Although the French influence on Mexican cooking was subsequently downplayed in favor of a more nationalistic approach, French techniques and Mexican ingredients made an excellent gastronomic pairing. Native ingredients such as squash blossoms, huitlacoche and avocados took beautifully to French style soups, crepes and mousses. Although these are claimed by proponents of the current nouvelle cuisine, they are offshoots of the French-Mexican culinary blending of the nineteenth century.

The following recipes, while containing many indigenous Mexican ingredients, would never have come to be created without the techniques learned from the French.

Mousse de Aguacate: Avocado Mousse

Crepas de Huitlacoche: Corn Fungus Crepes

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25 mai 2011 3 25 /05 /mai /2011 16:27

source : http://www.wineloverspage.com

 

France, once once the world's leading wine-producing nation, lost claim to that title when Italy increased its annual production to 2 billion gallons some years ago.

It's not the oldest wine-producing nation, for wine was made around the eastern Mediterranean basin millenia before Caesar divided Gaul into three parts.

Indeed, the French can't even claim undisputed bragging rights as producers of the world's best wines. Vinous competitors around the world, from Italy to California to Australia, would have something to say about that.

None of which takes away from this: Without the contributions France has made, wine as we know it today wouldn't be wine.

Back in the 12th Century, when the English held Bordeaux, they learned to love the local wine, a beverage they called "claret."

Ever since that time, around the civilized world, the standard for fine wine - the dry, acidic type that marries well with food - has been based on the French model.

So simple respect for wine history demands that I begin the second part of my brief refresher course in wine tasting - a country-by-country review of wines from around the world - with a look at France.

France, which remains second-largest wine producer in the world, produces tiny quantities of some of the greatest and most expensive wines. It also produces huge quantities of vin ordinaire (everyday drinking wine) that's rarely exported.

In the middle there's a good selection of decent, fairly priced table wine that gives a good idea of the debt wine lovers owe to France.

If you've ever ordered a pitcher of red wine in a Parisian bistro, you've likely tasted Cotes-du-Rhone. It's an intensely fruity, sharply acidic red wine that goes well with red meat, but it's no mellow sipper. If your tastes run to sweetish White Zinfandel, this one might take some getting used to, but it's a great example of the kind of sound, interesting table wines that come from France. From Alsace to the Loire, from Provence to Languedoc, and of course in the fabled wine regions of Bordeaux and Burgundy, you'll find thousands more

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26 avril 2011 2 26 /04 /avril /2011 23:17

source : http://royalromania.wordpress.com/

 

On 3/15 November 1869 the palace in Neuwied and every single house in the town was decorated with flags and garlands. At half past five the marriage procession started and proceeded to a salon which had been arranged as a Catholic chapel. After this ceremonial they proceeded down the staircase to a hall below richly arranged as a Protestant chapel. The royal couple made their sacre promise on their knees, exchanged rings. The text of the sermon was aptly chosen, as alluding to the difficulties and troubles which were to be encountered in the far-off Eastern country: “Whither thou goest, I will go : and where thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God”.  The thunder of cannons announced that the marriage was concluded.

A reception and a state dinner was held at the  Neuwied Castle. In the image below is the royal menu served with that occasion at Neuwied.

 

Source: RNL

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26 avril 2011 2 26 /04 /avril /2011 22:01

source : http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/

 

 The menu and music programme for dinner on board Britannia in honour of President de la Madrid 
 The Royal Archives © 2011,HM Queen Elizabeth II 

President de la Madrid was entertained by The Queen on board Britannia at the end of the official visit to Mexico in 1983. At the time, the yacht was anchored at Puerto Vallarta. The programme of music played in the course of the evening is shown here alongside the dinner menu.

 

The menu and music programme for dinner on board <i>Britannia<i> in honour of President de la Madrid

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26 avril 2011 2 26 /04 /avril /2011 21:34

source : http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/

 

 Menu for the dinner in honour of President Echeverría on HMY Britannia 
 The Royal Archives © 2011, HM Queen Elizabeth II 

On 28 February 1975, at the end of the State Visit to Mexico, The Queen entertained President Echeverría and his suite to dinner on board HMY Britannia, anchored at Vera Cruz. A vignetted picture of Britannia appears at the top of the printed menu card

 

 

Menu for the dinner in honour of President Echeverría on HMY <i>Britannia<i>

 

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  • : French Influence
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